What is another name for a muscle cell?
Muscle fiber

The characteristic of muscle to return to resting length after being stretched is referred to
as:
Elasticity

What is the smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle consisting of the contractile
proteins between Z lines?
Sarcomere

What is the cell membrane of a muscle fiber that is polorized?
Sarcomere

What is the largest of the contractile proteins of the skeletal muscle?
Myosin

The regulatory calcium binding contractile protein of striated muscle is?
Troponin

Junction including t- tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Triad

Intracellular membrane compartment the stores calcium.

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

In reference to skeletal muscle, a muscle action describing visible shortening is?

Concentric

A chemical released at a synapse in response to the depolarization of the presynaptic membrane.
Neurotransmitter

A receptor located within skeletal muscle that is sensitive to static and dynamic changes in muscle length.
Muscle spindle

The connection between a terminal branch of an alpha motor nerve and skeletal muscle
fiber.
Neuromuscular junction

Slow oxidative motor units are recruited 1st during incremental exercise followed by an increase in FOG and FG motor unit recruitment. What principle does this follow?
Size principal.

A procedure of removing a microscopic sample of skeletal muscle fiber for research.
Muscle biopsy

One watt equal how many kg-m/min
6.118 kg-m/min

1 Kcal equals how many kilojoules?
4.186 kj

32° Fahrenheit equals what ° centigrade?
Zero degrees centigrade

The transfer of heat form one place to another by the motion of a heated substance is called?
Convection

What EKG lead will have the highest P wave?
Lead II

What are the bipolar leads in a 12 lead EKG?
I, II, III

What does the letter a stand for in aVF, aVL, aVR?
Augmented

A heart rate less than 60b/min is called?
Bradycardia

A heart rate greater than 100b/min is called?
Tachycardia

In a normal heart rhythm, what is the dominant pacemaker
?
SA Node

Do beta-blockers have a positive or negative inotropic effect on the heart?
Negative

Does digitalis have a positive or negative inotropic effect on the heart?
Positive

How many lead placements are there in a 12 lead EKG?
10

To what length can skeletal muscle extend?
150 % of resting length

How much can skeletal muscle shorten?
57 %

The property of a muscle to be stimulated by a substance is referred to as:
Irritability

During breathing, this muscle facilitates expiration?
Diaphragm

A heart rate rhythm that is not normal is referred to as:
Arrhythmia

The self-initiating characteristic of the heart muscle impulses is called:
Automaticity

Excess drinking of fluid (typically water) lowers the concentration of serum sodium, increasing the risk of developing ________.
Hyponathermia

A body temperature above 37° is called:
Hyperthermia

Heat production account for _____% to_____% of total caloric expenditure during exercise.
70% - 75%

_____ is decreased by body water content.
Dehydration

During exercise, heat loss to the environment can occur by radiation, convection and_____ cooling.
Evaporative

An ergogenic aid that increases interstitial and vascular water
:
Glycerol

The globular protein of muscle that contains one iron containing heme group that can bind oxygen?
Myoglobin

Cells that can generate action potentials in response to changes in chemical composition
of their surroundings.
Chemoreceptors

The increase in ventilation corresponding to the development of metabolic acidosis,
usually detected during an incremental exercise test.
Ventilory threshold

The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid.
Carbonic anhydrase

Flexibility training technique that involves tension and relaxation of target muscles.
Contract-relax stretching

Making an expiratory effort with the glottis closed.
Valsalva maneuver

A lack of adequate blood flow to active muscles.
Ischemia

Diffusion with a semipermeable membrane and a lipid containing more particles on one side.
Osmosis

The movement of substances against their concentration gradients by expenditure of metabolic energy.
Active transport

What is the fluid outside of every cell?
Interstitial fluid

A lack of adequate oxygen.
Hypoxia

The most important glucocorticoid that promotes the increased synthesis of glucose.
Cortisol

This hormone increases metabolic rate and its gland is located in the upper part of the trachea.
Thyroxin

What are the two major hormones secreted by the pancreas?
Insulin and glucagon

Losing electrons is referred to as:

Oxidation

The lipid portion of the blood.
Plasma

What is the barometric pressure of ABQ, NM?
630 mmHg

Per liter of oxygen consumed, which provides more energy (kcal)- Carbohydrate or Fat?
Carbohydrate (5.05kcal/liter)

What is the body’s efficiency in converting chemical to mechanical energy during exercise?
30%

How many ATP are formed as the result of the metabolism of 1 glucose molecule?
36 ATP (in muscle)

How many ATP are formed as the result of the metabolism of 1 palmitate (16 carbon)
molecule?
129 ATP

Which energy system, phosphocreatine, glycolysis, or oxidative phosphorylation provides the most rapid source of ATP breakdown?
Phosphocreatine

1 MET is equivalent to how many ml/kg/min?
3.5 ml/kg/min

Carbohydrates are stored in the tissues of the body in the form of:
Glycogen

Creatine phosphate is an important high energy intermediate in metabolism because?
It can be used to resynthesize ATP very quickly.

The term for the breakdown of glycogen to glucose is:
Glygenolysis

The term for the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is:
Glycolysis

The breakdown of fatty acids to Acetyl-CoA is termed?
Beta oxidation

The hormone responsible for increasing cellular uptake of glucose is:
Insulin

Those areas of medullated nerve that are devoid of myelin sheath are:
Nodes of ranvier

Oxygen-binding pigment similar to hemoglobin gives red muscle fiber it color?
Myoglobin

Structured, sequential development of athletic skill in specific time blocks is:
Periodization

A group of compounds, collectively refers to ATP and PC:
Phosphagens

Chemical substance involved in transmission of an impulse from one nerve fiber to another across a synapse.
Acetylcholine

The electrical activity developed in muscle or nerve during activity or depolorization:
Action potential

The enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of ATP:
ATPase

Metabolic process where the nitrogen containing amino radical is removed from the amino acid molecule.
Amino acid deamination

These two hormones are referred to as catecholamines.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine

Lower than normal blood sugar level due to inadequate supply or regulation.
Hypoglycemia

True or False- If coming from sea level to Albuquerque, it is expected that the ability to perform endurance activities is decreased.
True

True or False- The percentage of oxygen in the air at altitude is lower than at sea-level.
False- it is still 20.95%

How many kilogram-meters per minute (kgm·min) equal one Watt?
6.118

What are the energy equivalents (kcal) per gram of CHO, Fat, and Protein?
4,9,4

True or False- Active recovery is more effective than passive recovery in facilitating restoration of ATP?
True

Where does most of the lipid metabolized during aerobic exercise come from?
Muscle lipid droplets

In which cellular organelle is oxygen "consumed" and used to produce ATP?
Mitochondria

Does lipid "burn" in a carbohydrate "flame"?
No, it burns in an amino acid flame.

The cycle used to carry lactate from muscle to the blood, for uptake by the liver to form glucose is?
The Cori Cycle

The ratio of work output to work input is?
Efficiency

The first muscle fibers recruited during low to moderate intensity exercise are?
Slow twitch

What hormone can cause an increase in blood glucose levels?
Glucagon

The term for formation of glucose from a non-carbohydrate source is?
Gluconeogenesis

The lack of adequate oxygen due to reduced partial pressure of oxygen is termed?
Hypoxia

The food source that provides the most Kcal per gram is?
Fat

The lactate threshold represents a transition between:
Steady state and non- steady state exercise

Ergometry involves the measurement of?
Mechanical work and power

What is the body’s efficiency in converting chemical energy to mechanical energy during exercise?
~ 30 %

What decreases as you go up in altitude- the percentage of oxygen in the air or the partial pressure of oxygen in the air?
Partial pressure of oxygen

What two components determine minute ventilation (VE)?
Tidal volume and respiratory rate

How many alveoli are in the human lung?
300 million

What is an immediate response that the body makes during acute exposure to altitude?
Increased ventilation

What is the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood?
100mmHg

What is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood?
~ 46 mmHg

What is a normal hematocrit for men & women?
40- 45 % for men, 35-40% for women

Is ventilation a component of respiration or is respiration a component of ventilation?
Ventilation is a component of respiration.

What is the part of ventilation that reaches the respiratory zone of the lung?
Alveolar ventilation

What 2 ways is oxygen transported in blood?
Dissolved in plasma and bound to hemoglobin

How much oxygen in ml’s can be bound per gram of hemoglobin?
1.34 ml/O2/gm/Hb

A downward right shift in the oxygen dissociation curve is called?
The Bohr effect

Does heart rate typically increase or decrease during expiration?
Decrease

How much does the atrial kick contribute to ventricular filling?
30%

End diastolic volume or stretch in the heart is known as:
Preload

What is the natural pacemaker of the heart?
SA node

What law states that increased stretch of the heart muscle results in increased force of
contraction?
Frank-Starling law

What term describes the volume of blood pumped by the heart each minute?
Cardiac output

In the cardiac cycle, what event occurs when ventricular pressures increase, but ventricular blood volume does not change?
Isometric contraction

What term describes the volume of blood ejected per heartbeat?
Stroke volume

In what part of the cardiovascular system does blood pressure and blood flow velocity decrease the most?
Arterioles

This type of regulation is responsible for increases in stroke volume at the start of exercise:
Inotropic regulation

An indirect measure of anaerobic capacity- the difference between oxygen cost and oxygen consumed is called?
Accumulated oxygen deficit