|What is another name for a muscle cell?
The characteristic of muscle to return to resting length after being stretched is referred to as:
What is the smallest contractile unit of skeletal muscle consisting of the contractile proteins between Z lines?
What is the cell membrane of a muscle fiber that is polorized?
What is the largest of the contractile proteins of the skeletal muscle?
The regulatory calcium binding contractile protein of striated muscle is?
Junction including t- tubules and the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
Intracellular membrane compartment the stores calcium.
In reference to skeletal muscle, a muscle action describing visible shortening is?
A chemical released at a synapse in response to the depolarization of the presynaptic membrane.
A receptor located within skeletal muscle that is sensitive to static and dynamic changes in muscle length.
The connection between a terminal branch of an alpha motor nerve and skeletal muscle
Slow oxidative motor units are recruited 1st during incremental exercise followed by an increase in FOG and FG motor unit recruitment. What principle does this follow?
A procedure of removing a microscopic sample of skeletal muscle fiber for research.
One watt equal how many kg-m/min
1 Kcal equals how many kilojoules?
32° Fahrenheit equals what ° centigrade?
Zero degrees centigrade
The transfer of heat form one place to another by the motion of a heated substance is called?
What EKG lead will have the highest P wave?
What are the bipolar leads in a 12 lead EKG?
I, II, III
What does the letter a stand for in aVF, aVL, aVR?
A heart rate less than 60b/min is called?
A heart rate greater than 100b/min is called?
In a normal heart rhythm, what is the dominant pacemaker?
Do beta-blockers have a positive or negative inotropic effect on the heart?
Does digitalis have a positive or negative inotropic effect on the heart?
How many lead placements are there in a 12 lead EKG?
To what length can skeletal muscle extend?
150 % of resting length
How much can skeletal muscle shorten?
The property of a muscle to be stimulated by a substance is referred to as:
During breathing, this muscle facilitates expiration?
A heart rate rhythm that is not normal is referred to as:
The self-initiating characteristic of the heart muscle impulses is called:
Excess drinking of fluid (typically water) lowers the concentration of serum sodium, increasing the risk of developing ________.
A body temperature above 37° is called:
Heat production account for _____% to_____% of total caloric expenditure during exercise.
70% - 75%
_____ is decreased by body water content.
During exercise, heat loss to the environment can occur by radiation, convection and_____ cooling.
An ergogenic aid that increases interstitial and vascular water:
The globular protein of muscle that contains one iron containing heme group that can bind oxygen?
Cells that can generate action potentials in response to changes in chemical composition
of their surroundings.
The increase in ventilation corresponding to the development of metabolic acidosis, usually detected during an incremental exercise test.
The enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to carbonic acid.
Flexibility training technique that involves tension and relaxation of target muscles.
Making an expiratory effort with the glottis closed.
A lack of adequate blood flow to active muscles.
Diffusion with a semipermeable membrane and a lipid containing more particles on one side.
The movement of substances against their concentration gradients by expenditure of metabolic energy.
What is the fluid outside of every cell?
A lack of adequate oxygen.
The most important glucocorticoid that promotes the increased synthesis of glucose.
This hormone increases metabolic rate and its gland is located in the upper part of the trachea.
What are the two major hormones secreted by the pancreas?
Insulin and glucagon
Losing electrons is referred to as:
The lipid portion of the blood.
What is the barometric pressure of ABQ, NM?
Per liter of oxygen consumed, which provides more energy (kcal)- Carbohydrate or Fat?
What is the bodys efficiency in converting chemical to mechanical energy during exercise?
How many ATP are formed as the result of the metabolism of 1 glucose molecule?
36 ATP (in muscle)
How many ATP are formed as the result of the metabolism of 1 palmitate (16 carbon)
Which energy system, phosphocreatine, glycolysis, or oxidative phosphorylation provides the most rapid source of ATP breakdown?
1 MET is equivalent to how many ml/kg/min?
Carbohydrates are stored in the tissues of the body in the form of:
Creatine phosphate is an important high energy intermediate in metabolism because?
It can be used to resynthesize ATP very quickly.
The term for the breakdown of glycogen to glucose is:
The term for the breakdown of glucose to pyruvate is:
The breakdown of fatty acids to Acetyl-CoA is termed?
The hormone responsible for increasing cellular uptake of glucose is:
Those areas of medullated nerve that are devoid of myelin sheath are:
Nodes of ranvier
Oxygen-binding pigment similar to hemoglobin gives red muscle fiber it color?
Structured, sequential development of athletic skill in specific time blocks is:
A group of compounds, collectively refers to ATP and PC:
Chemical substance involved in transmission of an impulse from one nerve fiber to another across a synapse.
The electrical activity developed in muscle or nerve during activity or depolorization:
The enzyme that facilitates the breakdown of ATP:
Metabolic process where the nitrogen containing amino radical is removed from the amino acid molecule.
Amino acid deamination
These two hormones are referred to as catecholamines.
Epinephrine and norepinephrine
Lower than normal blood sugar level due to inadequate supply or regulation.
True or False- If coming from sea level to Albuquerque, it is expected that the ability to perform endurance activities is decreased.
True or False- The percentage of oxygen in the air at altitude is lower than at sea-level.
False- it is still 20.95%
How many kilogram-meters per minute (kgm·min) equal one Watt?
What are the energy equivalents (kcal) per gram of CHO, Fat, and Protein?
True or False- Active recovery is more effective than passive recovery in facilitating restoration of ATP?
Where does most of the lipid metabolized during aerobic exercise come from?
Muscle lipid droplets
In which cellular organelle is oxygen "consumed" and used to produce ATP?
Does lipid "burn" in a carbohydrate "flame"?
No, it burns in an amino acid flame.
The cycle used to carry lactate from muscle to the blood, for uptake by the liver to form glucose is?
The Cori Cycle
The ratio of work output to work input is?
The first muscle fibers recruited during low to moderate intensity exercise are?
What hormone can cause an increase in blood glucose levels?
The term for formation of glucose from a non-carbohydrate source is?
The lack of adequate oxygen due to reduced partial pressure of oxygen is termed?
The food source that provides the most Kcal per gram is?
The lactate threshold represents a transition between:
Steady state and non- steady state exercise
Ergometry involves the measurement of?
Mechanical work and power
What is the bodys efficiency in converting chemical energy to mechanical energy during exercise?
~ 30 %
What decreases as you go up in altitude- the percentage of oxygen in the air or the partial pressure of oxygen in the air?
Partial pressure of oxygen
What two components determine minute ventilation (VE)?
Tidal volume and respiratory rate
How many alveoli are in the human lung?
What is an immediate response that the body makes during acute exposure to altitude?
What is the partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood?
What is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in venous blood?
~ 46 mmHg
What is a normal hematocrit for men & women?
40- 45 % for men, 35-40% for women
Is ventilation a component of respiration or is respiration a component of ventilation?
Ventilation is a component of respiration.
What is the part of ventilation that reaches the respiratory zone of the lung?
What 2 ways is oxygen transported in blood?
Dissolved in plasma and bound to hemoglobin
How much oxygen in mls can be bound per gram of hemoglobin?
A downward right shift in the oxygen dissociation curve is called?
The Bohr effect
Does heart rate typically increase or decrease during expiration?
How much does the atrial kick contribute to ventricular filling?
End diastolic volume or stretch in the heart is known as:
What is the natural pacemaker of the heart?
What law states that increased stretch of the heart muscle results in increased force of
What term describes the volume of blood pumped by the heart each minute?
In the cardiac cycle, what event occurs when ventricular pressures increase, but ventricular blood volume does not change?
What term describes the volume of blood ejected per heartbeat?
In what part of the cardiovascular system does blood pressure and blood flow velocity decrease the most?
This type of regulation is responsible for increases in stroke volume at the start of exercise:
An indirect measure of anaerobic capacity- the difference between oxygen cost and oxygen consumed is called?
Accumulated oxygen deficit